Twenty years have handed for the reason that 9/11 assaults within the United States. It was within the rapid aftermath that US President George W. Bush declared his notorious “struggle on terror” and launched a cataclysmic marketing campaign of occupation in each Afghanistan and Iraq.

In 2001, a US-led coalition invaded Afghanistan to dismantle al-Qaeda and seek for its chief, Osama bin Laden, who have been harbored by the Taliban authorities. The presence of overseas troops despatched al-Qaeda militants into hiding and the Taliban have been overthrown.

How 9/11 and the Battle on Terror Formed the World


In declaring his struggle, Bush gave the worldwide neighborhood an unequivocal ultimatum: to both be “with us or in opposition to us within the struggle in opposition to terror.” In 2003, he took this a step additional. He leveraged his energy and satisfied US allies that Iraq was a state sponsor of terror and its president, Saddam Hussein, had developed weapons of mass destruction, which posed an imminent risk. It wasn’t lengthy earlier than the world came upon that this narrative was constructed by the White Home because the Bush administration was decided to assault Iraq. The outcomes have been devastating: tons of of hundreds of Iraqi deaths, the displacement of over 9 million civilians and the political mayhem that continues to today.

It has been argued that Islam has been conflated with terrorism not solely within the media, but additionally in a lot of the political discourse. As a direct results of the struggle on terror, research present that an assault by a Muslim perpetrator receives 375% extra consideration than if the wrongdoer was a non-Muslim.

As these patterns grew with time, nations began to make use of their deterrence capability beneath the guise of the “struggle on terror,” solely to undermine those that have been resisting regimes or in search of self-determination. This was seen in nations like Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Even Russian chief Vladimir Putin, in 2001, rapidly persuaded Western leaders that his nation confronted related threats from Islamists and was dealt a carte blanche to crack down with brute pressure on insurgents and civilians alike.

A navy drone plane launching from an plane service. © Digital Storm / Shutterstock

The overseas occupation of Afghanistan led to August 2021. After 20 grueling and depressing years, the US pulled out from Afghanistan amidst a Taliban takeover, setting a variety of occasions into movement. Chaos crammed Kabul Airport as scores of individuals have been determined to depart the nation. The IMF suspended Afghanistan’s entry to tons of of tens of millions in emergency funds as a consequence of a “lack of readability throughout the worldwide neighborhood” over recognizing a Taliban authorities.  

The struggle led to irreparable damages and tons of of hundreds of Afghans paid with their lives. The US spent over $2.2 trillion on the battle and had hundreds of its troopers returned in physique baggage. Right now, ravenous households in Afghanistan are promoting their infants for cash to feed their kids and the world solely appears to be like on.

To know how we bought right here, I spoke to Anas Altikriti, a political analyst, hostage negotiator and the CEO of The Cordoba Basis, a corporation aimed toward bridging the hole of understanding between the Muslim world and the West. On this interview, we focus on America’s dealing with of the occupation and study Afghanistan’s subsequent steps now that the Taliban has assumed authority within the nation.

The transcript has been edited for readability.

Kholoud Khalifa: Joe Biden has acquired a certain quantity of backlash from each side of the aisle for withdrawing abruptly from Afghanistan. What do you make of his resolution?

Anas Altikriti: Trying from an American perspective, I consider Biden had no selection. We are likely to overlook that the president who truly signed the settlement to depart Afghanistan was Donald Trump and his deadline was Could of this yr. Technically, you may state that Biden was finishing up a choice made by his predecessor. Nonetheless, in actuality — and I believe that that is what’s necessary — any American president would have discovered it extraordinarily troublesome and totally mindless to hold on a failed enterprise. Afghanistan and Iraq have been totally horrendous errors. If not on the level of conception and idea, the implementation was horrid.

Nonetheless, from a purely analytical political perspective, Biden had completely no selection. The truth that he was going to come back in for a lot criticism, and notably from the American proper, isn’t any shock in anyway. I want to assume that Biden’s administration had the capability to foresee that and to organize for that, not solely by way of media, but additionally by way of making an attempt to argue the political perspective. Though in America immediately, I don’t suppose that’s actually helpful.

So, typically talking, I’m not stunned by the truth that he bought attacked, as a result of in the end talking, on paper, this was a defeat to the People. It was a defeat to the People on the 20th anniversary of 9/11, the day through which the thought began to crystallize by way of those that needed to see American foundation unfold far and huge, and the entire intermittent 20 years has been nothing however an utter and an abject failure. 1000’s of American troops have been killed, however on the opposite facet, most likely greater than one million of Afghan lives have been completely decimated — both killed or having to flee their properties and stay as refugees elsewhere. The fee has been completely unimaginable, and for that, I believe the People can deal with themselves, as historical past will choose this to be a failed try from begin to end.

Khalifa: What are your ideas on the Taliban as a political actor in immediately’s geopolitical panorama?

Altikriti: Properly, we’ll wait and see. There isn’t any query that from the navy perspective, the Taliban gained. They achieved the victory, and so they managed to expel the People and to defeat them not solely on the bottom, but additionally at negotiating. For nearly the previous 12 years, there had been negotiations between the Taliban and the People both instantly or not directly, while on the similar time, the Taliban had been preventing in opposition to the American presence in Afghanistan and by no means conceding for a second on their goal that they needed a full and full withdrawal from Afghanistan. That, itself, is one thing to be taught at political science departments internationally, and it has positively affected my very own curriculum that I train to college students.

Negotiations, in addition to being backed by actual energy, are issues which have confirmed to be extraordinarily helpful and fairly profitable on this specific time. Now, that is likely to be straightforward compared to catering to a nation of 40 million which were devastated for nearly three generations — from oppressive regimes to conflicts, to wars, to civil struggle, to occupation, to absolute and utter devastation to the rise of violence, ideological militancy, to all types of points which have ravaged that nation.

Governing Afghanistan goes to be a very completely different kettle of fish. It’s not the identical as preventing. You may say that truly preventing a struggle from mountain tops and caves is comparatively straightforward compared with the duty forward. Whether or not they’re going to achieve success or not is one thing that we wait to see, and I hope for the betterment of the Afghan folks that they are going to be.

The fact is the Taliban have gained and in immediately’s world, they’ve the precise absolutely the proper to manipulate. Hopefully, throughout the foreseeable future, the Afghan folks can have the selection to both maintain them to account and lay the blame for no matter financial failures, for example, or in any other case.

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Former US President George W. Bush in Phoenix, AZ, USA on 3/16/2011. © Christopher Halloran / Shutterstock

This battle between nations and their regimes is a steady one. Fortunately, the place we stay, within the West, that battle is usually executed on a political airplane. So, we struggle politically and we maintain our legislators accountable via the poll containers. That isn’t current in lots of, many creating nations. Afghanistan is unquestionably a rustic that should discover its personal mannequin as to the way to govern and the way to create that form of stability between folks and regime. I believe it’s totally hypocritical from the West to prejudge them and maintain them to ransom by way of errors that occurred prior to now. Each administration commits errors of various types. Our personal authorities within the UK is now being investigated by an unbiased inquiry workers as to the way it handled COVID and whether or not a few of its selections led to the loss of life of hundreds of individuals. So, errors can occur.

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The West must deal with why they left Afghanistan after 20 years of absolute distress and struggling no higher than after they got here to it in 2001. That’s a query that the West, together with the UK, must ask themselves earlier than passing judgment on to the Taliban.

Khalifa: You talked about one thing very fascinating. You stated we’re ready to see and we can not choose them proper now. Will we see any hints of change? Has immediately’s Taliban modified from the Taliban of the pre-US occupation? For instance, the Taliban issued a public pardon on Afghan navy forces that had tried to eradicate them.

Altikriti: Properly, the hints are loads and the hints are optimistic. The truth that the Taliban, as you place it, issued that decree that there gained’t be any navy trials or courtroom marshals being held. The truth that from the very first hours, they stated that anybody who needs to depart might go away and so they gained’t cease them, however that they hope everybody will keep to rebuild Afghanistan. I believe from a political and PR perspective, that was a really, very shrewd strategy to lay out the preface of their coming agenda.

The truth that Taliban leaders spoke brazenly, and I’ll be trustworthy, in fairly spectacular narratives and discourses to overseas media — to the BBC, to Sky — and, in reality, took the initiative to really phoning up the BBC and intervening and finishing up lengthy and in depth interviews. This has by no means occurred earlier than. We might by no means have imagined that they sit with feminine correspondents and presenters and spoke freely and brazenly. Additionally, the truth that they met with the Shia communities in Afghanistan on the time after they have been celebrating Muharram and warranted them that every part was going to be fantastic.

I believe an enormous a part of whether or not Afghanistan succeeds or not lies within the fingers of the West. As an example, within the first 24 hours of the People leaving in such a chaotic method, which exemplified the chaos of the Taliban as we all know it, the IMF stated that funds to Afghanistan can be withheld. Therein begins that form of Western hegemony, Western colonization that I consider is on the very coronary heart of many issues in what we termed the Third World or the creating world.

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Protesters in London on 8/28/2021. © Koca Vehbi / Shutterstock

The truth that generally nations aren’t allowed to progress, they aren’t allowed to rise from the ashes, they aren’t allowed to recuperate, they aren’t allowed to rebuild, not due to any innate deficiency on their half, however due to the worldwide order that we’ve immediately on this planet. Now we have so many restraining authorized organizations — from the UN downwards, together with the IMF and the World Financial institution — that maintain nations to ransom. Both you behave in a specific manner or we’re going to withhold what is basically yours. It’s an absolute travesty, however sadly, this goes throughout all our radars. There may be little or no response by way of saying, dangle on, that’s neither simply nor honest nor democratic.

When you actually, actually need the betterment of Afghanistan and Afghan folks, nations needs to be piling in, with a view to afford assist, to afford assist and to make completely positive that the Afghan folks have every part they want with a view to rebuild for the long run.

However, sadly, the other is going on. We’re tying the nation’s fingers behind its again and saying, we’re simply going to observe and see the way you do in that boxing ring, and for those who don’t fare effectively, that will likely be justification for us to perhaps reintervene in a technique or one other someday down the road.

Khalifa: After seizing the nation, the Taliban promised an inclusive authorities, except girls. But the present authorities solely contains Taliban members. What are the probabilities that they ship on forming an inclusive authorities?

Altikriti: I’m kind of straddling the road between being a tutorial and an activist, and I’ve a foot in each, so it’s generally just a little bit troublesome. Nonetheless, I might counsel that when the Conservative Occasion in Britain wins an election, it’s by no means assumed that they embody folks from the Labour Occasion or Liberal Democrats of their subsequent authorities. The identical goes in America: When the Republicans win an election, you may’t fairly ask or anticipate of them to incorporate these with unimaginable minds and capacities from the Democratic Occasion — you merely don’t.

So, the hope for inclusivity in Afghanistan must take that into consideration. The Taliban are the profitable celebration — whether or not by pressure or by political negotiations — and due to this fact, they’ve the precise to completely construct the form of authorities they see match. For them to then attain out to others can be an unimaginable gesture.

However I believe it’s problematic and hypocritical if the West doesn’t permit the profitable celebration to manipulate. If after a while it doesn’t handle to, then perhaps you’d anticipate it to succeed in out to others from exterior its personal celebration or from exterior its personal borders and invite them to come back and assist out. However that’s not what you anticipate from day one.

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Afghan males in Kabul, Afghanistan on 8/1/2021. © Trent Inness / Shutterstock

The truth that they haven’t executed what many individuals anticipated, and I personally need to say I feared would occur, and it hasn’t. So, till we discover that media stations closed down, radio stations barricaded and other people rounded up — and I hope none of that may occur, but when it does, we maintain them to account.

Khalifa: Imran Khan, the prime minister of Pakistan, says the worldwide neighborhood should have interaction with the Taliban, keep away from isolating Afghanistan and chorus from imposing sanctions. He says the “Taliban are the most effective guess to do away with ISIS.” What’s your view on that?

Altikriti: If we’re trying again at their monitor report, they have been those who managed to place an finish to the civil struggle that broke out after the liberation from the Soviet Union. I imply, for about 5 to 6 years, Afghanistan was ravaged with a civil struggle, warlords have been working the place amok. I keep in mind an American journalist stated the one secure haven in Afghanistan was one thing like a 20-square-meter room in a resort within the middle of Kabul. The Taliban got here in and created a way of normality, as soon as once more by way of placing an finish to the civil struggle. There remained just one or two factions that have been nonetheless in resistance, however in any other case, the Taliban managed to really carry Afghanistan to order.

It was solely after 9/11 and the US intervention that returned the nation again right into a state of chaos. So, if we’re going to take their monitor report into consideration, then it’s solely honest to say that they do have the expertise, the experience and the monitor report that exhibits that they will carry some semblance of normality and peace.

Now, clearly, we perceive that Afghanistan is just not disconnected from its regional map and from the regional politics which can be at play, together with the Pakistani-Indian battle. It’s no secret that the Taliban have been sorted and maintained by the Pakistani intelligence. I perceive from the negotiations that have been going down since 2010 that there was nearly at all times a member of the Pakistani intelligence current on the desk. So, it’s not a secret that Pakistan noticed that with a view to quell the so-called factions that represented the mujahideen, the Taliban have been its most secure guess.

In that sense and from that standpoint, you’ll counsel that the Taliban are greatest outfitted. A lot of what was happening in Afghanistan was primarily based on cultures, traditions and norms that People have been by no means able to embrace, perceive or settle for. That’s why they fell foul so many instances of incidents, which might have been simply appeased with solely just a little little bit of an understanding and of an appreciation of fantastic cultural or conventional intricacies and nuances. The Taliban wouldn’t have that subject.

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The Ahead Working Base Ghazni in Afghanistan on 2/5/2011. © Ryanzo W. Perez/ Shutterstock

So, you’ll counsel that what Imran Khan stated has some floor to face on. It’s a viable idea. However every part that we’re speaking about will likely be judged by what see goes to occur. However earlier than we try this, we have to permit the Taliban the time, in order that after we come to say, pay attention, they fail, we’ve grounds and proof to subject such a judgment.

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Khalifa: I need to shift to the US. So we all know that there was a US-led coalition, and its presence for over 20 years in Afghanistan and within the Center East led to little or no change within the area. You already alluded to that on the very starting. The US spent trillions of {dollars} and incurred the very best loss of life toll out of the coalition members. What has the US discovered from this expertise?

Altikriti: I believe that’s the query we needs to be targeted on. I concern that it has discovered nearly nothing and that’s very worrying. Identical to we have been passing pre-judgments on the Taliban, we have to do the identical in every single place. If that’s the form of ruler that we’re utilizing to evaluate a straight line, it’s the identical ruler we have to choose each straight line.

We heard the statements that emerged from Washington, and to be completely trustworthy, very, only a few have been of any substance. Ninety-nine %, and that is my very own impression, have been about America trying again and the way they let down the translators and the employees within the alliance authorities and left them at their very own destiny. The tears have been shed, each within the British Parliament in addition to the American Congress, which truly exhibits that these folks didn’t get it. They didn’t get it and that’s what worries me probably the most.

If one thing as big as Afghanistan and what occurred — this wasn’t a automobile crash that occurred in a break up second. This was one thing that was led over the course of the final 17 years and positively since President Trump signed the settlement with the Taliban in 2020. This could have been a time for politicians and analysts to really learn the scenario and skim the map correctly. However it appears that evidently they by no means did and so they by no means bothered to see if there was any want or inclination to take classes from it.  

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Anti-Iraq Battle protesters in Washington, DC on 9/15/2007. © Sage Ross / Shutterstock

I’m but to come back throughout a decision-maker, a lawmaker, a politician, a senior adviser to come back out and say there have been horrendous errors carried out by the occupation and by the opposite alliance governments that led to this, and consequently, we have to be taught what to do and never do in future. However there’s this conceitedness and pleasure that forbids us from doing so, and as such, they’re inclined to make the identical mistake time and time and time once more.

Khalifa: Provided that the so-called struggle on terror, and extra particularly the occupation in Iraq, was an utter failure, what’s the chance in your opinion that America will have interaction in one other overseas intervention?

Altikriti: From a purely political view, I discover this extraordinarily far-fetched within the foreseeable future. The explanations being that People needed to endure bruising at each single degree and due to the crippling financial disaster. So, it’s extraordinarily troublesome to launch an intervention or navy intervention in the way in which that we noticed in Iraq, Afghanistan or Panama within the subsequent two to 3 years. However the factor is, typically, American politics is pushed by company America.

I imply, we speak in regards to the trillions spent, however like somebody stated in an article I learn in The Washington Submit, that these trillions have been greater than made up by American firms, by American oil, by getting their fingers on sure minerals in Afghanistan. Even the drug commerce itself, which Britain and America thought they’d quell, it was truly the Taliban who introduced it beneath management, who truly went round and burnt the poppy seed farms. The West reinvigorated that tradeline and stabilized it. Due to this fact, as a buddy of a buddy tells me, he says lots of those that have been scrambling for airplanes in Kabul Airport have been poppy seed farmers as a result of they knew that they’d completely no future beneath the Taliban.

So, as soon as we depend the trillions incurred by the taxpayer, we overlook that there’s one other facet that you simply and I most likely don’t even know that’s gaining riches on the expense of the Afghans.

The beast now could be to check out new weapons. Lockheed Martin and others will at all times have a vested curiosity in making an attempt out the brand new know-how, and what’s higher than to attempt it out in real-life conditions? If I used to be to talk to any fashionable, up to date, 30-something-year-old navy analysts, they’d snort me off as a result of I’m talking a couple of bygone age. We’re speaking now about wars the place we don’t contain human beings. I imply, by way of the assailants, they’re flying drones, and there’s an intelligence degree to it that I can’t fathom nor perceive.

One other side that nobody is speaking about nearly is the privatization of militaries. We’re coming now to search out brigades, hundreds of troops which can be mercenaries, individuals who struggle for a wage. Now, that is the brand new strategy to struggle wars: Why would Britain make use of a few of its brightest and youngest when it might pay £100 a day to have another person struggle wars on its behalf? And that is now turning into a multibillion-dollar business. It first began out as a actuality in Iraq, after we had the likes of Blackwater who have been guarding the airports, presidential palaces and authorities officers. You’d attempt to converse to them solely to comprehend they have been from Georgia or Mozambique or elsewhere, and so they don’t fall beneath the premise of native legislation. Due to this fact, in the event that they kill somebody by mistake, you may’t take them to courtroom and that’s the contract you signal. That’s the place I believe the hazard lies.

Khalifa: In 2010, you appeared on Al Jazeera’s “Inside Iraq” alongside the late Robert Fisk and Jack Burkman, a Republican strategist. Burkman described Arabs and Muslims as a “bunch of barbarians within the desert” and the Bush administration because the savior bringing change. With its failures in Iraq and Afghanistan, has the US perceptions of Arabs and Muslims modified, and if that’s the case, how?

Altikriti: I’d like to have a chat with Jack proper now to see what he thinks 11 years on. To reply your query, it saddens me to say that sure, it’s modified, however solely as a result of America and American society are so polarized and so divided. It solely took Donald Trump to develop into president or 50% of People to defy every part that Trump stated. Being anti-Trump meant standing up for Muslims when he issued the Muslim ban for flights. So, folks from their standpoint of being anti-Trump stated, no, Muslims are welcome. It’s completely the incorrect strategy to go on about it. That’s not how we acknowledge, for example, that racism is incorrect or evil.

Nonetheless, the very fact is that previously, anti-Muslim sentiments have been in every single place and the emotions that Jack Burkman expressed so horribly in that interview have been widespread. I personally consider they nonetheless stay as a result of 9/11 has develop into an business and that business has many aspects to it. A part of it’s ideological, half is media, half is academic and clearly half transpires into one thing that’s navy or security-based.

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Witness Towards Torture activists demonstrating exterior the White Home on 1/11/2019. © Phil Pasquini / Shutterstock

We nonetheless have Guantanamo. Why is it that the American folks aren’t speaking about Guantanamo to the extent that they need to be? That is one thing that’s on the conscience of each single American citizen — it’s paid from their very own taxes. Why nobody talks about it’s just because nobody dares contact the holy grail — the business of 9/11. It’s an enormous, big downside.

I nonetheless consider that these sentiments expressed by Jack again then are nonetheless prevalent, however like I stated, they have been mitigated by the appearance of Trump and by his declaration in opposition to Arabs and Muslims. This, in addition to the highlighting of sure points by the left in America, such because the gross crimes dedicated by the Saudi regime and that’s helped in two methods. Firstly, you expose the crimes dedicated by Saudis, but it surely’s additionally cemented that view that Arabs are barbarians.

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Khalifa: Afghanistan wasn’t the one nation that suffered. Iraq suffered extra dire and devastating penalties from the so-called struggle on terror. What does a future appear to be for Iraq now that the US has withdrawn?

Altikriti: Oh, very grim, very, very grim. The People haven’t withdrawn — they’re much less seen. There are present negotiations relating to the subsequent Iraqi authorities within the aftermath of the elections that we’ve simply had, which exhibits that the People are closely concerned.

Iraq is the playground of Iran. So, due to this fact, any coverage of America or Britain or Europe that includes Iran has to have Iraq within the center.

There are nonetheless about three or 4 American navy bases, and every so often, we hear the information that sure militias focused this base or that base the place People lie. Now, the personnel who’re there throughout the bases would possibly carry ID playing cards as building employees, advisers, authorized consultants, bankers or no matter. However in the end, they’re all there to symbolize the most effective pursuits of the United States. So, America remains to be there.

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US troopers at a checkpoint in Kirkuk, Iraq on 2/2/2007. © Sadik Gulec / Shutterstock

Nonetheless, Iraq is in dire straits. I believe the indices that go round yearly that present us ranges of corruption, ranges of transparency, ranges of democracy, ranges of happiness of individuals and satisfaction — Iraq is considered one of many 10 worst nations on each single degree. I believe that exhibits what’s been executed to Iraq and what’s been executed to the Iraqi folks.

The actual fact is that we’ve at the least 30% of the Iraqi folks residing as refugees, both inside Iraq or exterior of Iraq. The truth that in an election solely 20% of the folks select to participate.

It’s important to ask critical questions. It’s important to say, OK, so when the People accused Iran — and I’m a believer that Iran is the worst of all gamers in Iraq. However it’s a must to ask: So that you occupied the nation, why did you permit it to occur? So, you may’t simply brush it off and say, effectively, the Iranian militias and its folks and its proxy brokers within the solar. Properly, what have been you doing there? So, I believe that, once more, what has been executed to Iraq and to all Iraqis — no matter their religion, no matter their sect, no matter their ethnicity — all of what has occurred is a stain. An enormous, big one on the consciousness of everybody in Britain, America, Spain and all of the nations that signed up for this and took half on this, everybody has a duty to reply.

I imply, clearly, after we spoke about Afghanistan, we didn’t converse in regards to the crimes, the precise crimes that have been dedicated. The one which we come to acknowledge and learn about is the crimes dedicated by the Australians, the place they really educated the younger cadets to shoot at folks and kill them to be acknowledged as troopers. We didn’t discuss that as a result of there are such a lot of of people who have been dedicated. To talk not of Arab and Muslim barbarity, however of Western barbarity — that’s one thing I believe needs to be mentioned.

Khalifa: In Egypt, it was a navy coup in 2013 that overthrew a democratically elected authorities led by the Muslim Brotherhood. In Tunisia, a constitutional change led to the autumn of Ennahda, an Islamist celebration. In Morocco, it was the individuals who voted out the Justice and Growth Occasion, which dominated the nation for 10 years and suffered a large defeat in September; they went from having 125 seats to solely 12. To juxtapose this, in Afghanistan, the Taliban conquered the nation in a single day from the US, probably the most highly effective nation on this planet. What message does this ship to Islamist events within the Muslim world?

Altikriti: Solely yesterday, I used to be discussing this with a bunch of colleagues, and somebody repeated an announcement that was despatched to me by a fellow of Chatham Home. He stated to me one thing fairly fascinating. He stated: “Don’t you see that many around the globe, notably younger Muslims, will likely be seeking to Afghanistan — and three months in the past in Palestine and what occurred there — and suppose to themselves that the way in which ahead is to hold weapons.” I stated: “Hear, my buddy, you’re saying it. I’m not.”

However in actuality, it’s unlucky that lots of my very own college students are saying, “It’s been confirmed.” I imply, they are saying, “you lecturers, you at all times discuss empirical proof. Properly, right here it’s: Politics doesn’t work. Democracy doesn’t work. The poll field doesn’t work. What does work? There you go, you have got Taliban, you have got the militias. So go determine.” Sadly, that’s the form of dialogue that I believe will dominate the Muslim scene, notably the political Muslim scene.

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Ennahda supporters in Tunis, Tunisia on 2/27/2021. © Hasan Mrad / Shutterstock

For the subsequent few years, I consider, while we analyze political Islam and Islamic events, whether or not in Egypt, Morocco or Tunisia, that would be the query. Is it a viable argument to say that these events can have completely no probability, both instantly within the quick run or in the long term? In Tunisia, they have been allowed to run for about 10 years. In Morocco, they have been in authorities for about 10 years. Earlier than that, they have been in opposition and so they have been thriving. However in Egypt, they weren’t allowed to remain for greater than a yr. So, in the end, the top is inevitable. So, is it the necessity to shift and alter ways? It’s going to be fairly an fascinating and, at instances, problematic dialogue, but it surely’s a dialogue it’s good to have.

And final, by the way in which, on this specific level, the West didn’t permit democracy, notably in Egypt and in Tunisia, to exist. We spoke of democracy, we spoke of human rights, we spoke of freedoms, however after they all got here to be crushed, the West did completely nothing, which informed the others effectively, you understand what? They don’t care, there aren’t any penalties, and that’s the reason it’s that many, many Muslim youth immediately will say, effectively, there’s just one strategy to go there.

Khalifa: And lastly, what do you consider are the core causes for Islamic extremist teams, i.e., Daesh or al-Qaeda, to nonetheless have a foothold within the area, and in your opinion, what’s one of the simplest ways to fight these teams?

Altikriti: Their largest arguments, and which works effectively for them, is the truth that democracy failed and that they bought nothing from shopping for into Western values of the way to run their societies.

Their largest argument now will likely be the Taliban and the way they gained. So, these are the principle standpoints [for] these extremist teams; they lie on folks’s frustrations and their emotions that there isn’t any different manner out. That’s basically the argument. I’ve seen it in teams the place somebody is making an attempt to recruit for that concept. Their backside line is it doesn’t work. There isn’t any different manner — that’s their solely argument.

It’s not theological, by the way in which. Individuals suppose they’re basing it on these Quranic verses or on hadiths [sayings of Prophet Muhammad], however they completely don’t, as a result of on that specific entrance, they lose, they haven’t any floor to face on. [For them,] it’s the truth that, in actuality, it doesn’t work — democracy doesn’t work. Human rights doesn’t work. As a result of in the end, your human rights imply nothing to these in energy. So, killing us is as straightforward as killing a hen. It’s nothing. That’s their argument.

So, it’s going to be a battle, it’s going to be an enormous, large, large battle for individuals who need to advocate democracy, need to advocate civil society and variety. It’s a battle we will’t afford to not have, we will’t afford to not be in there, as a result of the result, the prices will likely be so hefty on each single half and nobody will likely be excluded.

The views expressed on this article are the writer’s personal and don’t essentially mirror Truthful Observer’s editorial coverage.