What Is Adderall?
Adderall is the brand name of a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults.
Adderall is a combination of two stimulant drugs, amphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
Adderall XR is an extended-release form of the drug.
Doctors also prescribe Adderall (but not Adderall XR) to treat narcolepsy.
Adderall may help people with ADHD control their activities and increase their attention spans.
The drug may also prevent symptoms of narcolepsy, which include excessive sleepiness and sudden attacks of daytime sleepiness.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Adderall in 1960. The agency also has approved the combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine as a generic drug.
DSM Pharmaceuticals makes the brand-name drug, and many drug companies make a generic version.
Adderall belongs to a class of drugs called central nervous system stimulants. The drug works by increasing levels of the brain chemical dopamine, which stimulates the brain.
This stimulation has a calming and focusing effect on people with ADHD.
Adderall ‘High’ and Abuse
Use of Adderall has surged in recent years.
Research shows that the number of ADHD medications prescribed to children increased 45 percent from 2002 to 2010.
Of these drugs, Adderall was the second most-prescribed medication.
Sales of the drug jumped more than 3,000 percent from 2002 to 2006. In 2010 alone, the total number of Adderall prescriptions topped 18 million.
One reason for the surge in Adderall prescriptions is that increasing numbers of children and teenagers are getting an ADHD diagnosis.
However, doctors also prescribe the drug to children and adults who do not have ADHD.
This increased availability of Adderall has led to widespread abuse of the medication.
Because Adderall increases dopamine levels, it can trigger a feeling of euphoria among people who don’t have a medical reason to take it.
As a result, it has become a drug of choice among people trying to get “high,” who often crush and snort the pills or mix them water and inject them.
Because stimulants like Adderall increase alertness and attention, a growing number of people who do not have an ADHD diagnosis are using the drug to enhance their ability to think and focus.
This off-label use of Adderall is a growing trend, particularly among high school and college students who are trying to study for exams or boost their academic performance.
Stimulants like Adderall, sometimes called “smart pills,” are currently the second most common form of drug use on college campuses.
Despite the widespread belief that Adderall can improve a person’s ability to learn, the drug does not enhance thinking ability in people who do not have ADHD.
Young people who do not have ADHD but are taking Adderall to get better grades in school or gain an academic advantage are at risk for potentially deadly side effects.
Adderall and Weight Loss
Adderall also can suppress appetite, and a growing number of people who want to lose weight also abuse the drug as a diet pill.
However, using Adderall or Adderall XR for weight loss can result in severe side effects, including psychosis, addiction, stroke, cardiac arrest, and death.
Adderall can increase your risk for heart problems, high blood pressure, and stroke.
If the person taking Adderall has a history of a heart defect or other heart problems, there is a risk for sudden death.
Doctors need to check children for any heart problems before prescribing Adderall.
16.Hydromorphone may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, especially during the first 24 to 72 hours of your treatment and any time your dose is increased. Your doctor will monitor you carefully during your treatment. Tell your doctor if you have slowed breathing or have or have ever had asthma. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take hydromorphone. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways), a head injury or any condition that increases the pressure in your brain. or kyphoscoliosis (curving of the spine that may cause breathing problems). The risk that you will develop breathing problems may be higher if you are an older adult, or are weakened or malnourished due to disease. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment: slowed breathing, long pauses between breaths, or shortness of breath.
Taking certain other medications during your treatment with hydromorphone may increase the risk that you will experience serious, life-threatening side effects. Tell your doctor if you are taking or plan to take any of the following medications: antidepressants, other narcotic pain medications; medications for anxiety, nausea, or mental illness; muscle relaxants; sedatives; sleeping pills; or tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications and will monitor you carefully.
Drinking alcohol, taking prescription or non-prescription medications that contain alcohol, or using street drugs during your treatment with hydromorphone increases the risk that you will experience serious, life-threatening side effects. Talk to your doctor about the risks of drinking alcohol or using street drugs during your treatment.
Swallow the extended-release tablets whole. Do not split, chew, dissolve, or crush them. If you swallow broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved tablets you may receive too much hydromorphone at once instead of receiving the medication slowly over time. This may cause serious breathing problems or death.
Hydromorphone may be habit-forming. Do not take more of it, take it more often, or take it in a different way than directed by your doctor. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family drinks or has ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, uses or has ever used street drugs, or has overused prescription medications, or if you have or have ever had depression or another mental illness. There is a greater risk that you will overuse hydromorphone if you have or have ever had any of these conditions.
Do not allow anyone else to take your medication. Hydromorphone may harm or cause death to other people who take your medication, especially children. Keep hydromorphone in a safe place so that no one else can take it accidentally or on purpose. Be especially careful to keep hydromorphone out of the reach of children. Keep track of how many tablets or how much liquid is left so you will know if any medication is missing. Dispose of unwanted or no longer needed tablets, extended-release tablets, and liquid by flushing the medication down the toilet. (See STORAGE and DISPOSAL.)
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you take hydromorphone regularly during your pregnancy, your baby may experience life-threatening withdrawal symptoms after birth. Tell your baby’s doctor right away if your baby experiences any of the following symptoms: irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep, high-pitched cry, uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.